Critical to the success in the early 20th century southern textile industry were the mill villages. Like coal and mining towns that supported their industries, mill villages supported textile and cotton mills, and were fully functional towns unto themselves…

The Alleghany Furnace was established by Andrew Henderson and Robert Allison in 1811. For 8 years the partnership was in operation, until ceased in 1818. Facing stiff competition from more profitable and less costly furnace operations elsewhere, its owners could no longer afford

The old adage “Buy the book before you buy the coin” most certainly applies for those who wish to pursue tokens and exonumia. While there are vast quantities of books which have been published that address U.S. Federal emissions, comparatively very few references exist which address tokens

The coal mining towns of Dewar and Coalton, Oklahoma were located on the peripheries of what was once considered the greatest oil fields in the Western United States. The towns were located in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, and were situated along the tracks of the Missouri, Oklahoma, and Gulf Railroad.

For many workers and families who worked mines and inhabited coal towns, English was a second or third language. As new immigrants recently settled in the United States, they were just learning to speak the language. Many others, who weren’t immigrants, were unable to read and write.